Deutsche Saatveredelung AG (DSV)

Why undersow maize crops?

Maize cultivation can lead to problems in some locations despite specialist production techniques. The problems include erosion during the maize seedling development as well as nitrogen discharge and soil compaction after the harvest. Here, undersown crops repair the situation and bring additional benefits that are financially worthwhile. For example, there are federal states in which undersown crops are subsidised (e.g. Lower Saxony). Furthermore, maize undersown crops can help to achieve the target of the Erosionsschutzkataster (Erosion Protection Land Registry), the humus balance and the reduction in nitrogen discharge into the water protection areas.

But beside the direct requirements demanded, for example due to erosion protection for the planting of undersown crops, many farmers would also not like to do away anymore with sowing of undersown crops.

 

 

 

Undersown crops delight the farmer and the earthworms

Maize undersown crops offer a multitude of benefits, particularly for the soil fertility. Planting silage maize results in a strongly negative humus balance. This can be partly compensated for through the use of undersown crops. Already 200 kg/ha humus is produced by sowing 15 kg of undersow. At the same time, humus formation in the soil takes place through the huge root mass of the grasses. The good root penetration of the soil promotes the biological activity of the microbes and earthworms, thereby increasing the aggregate stability of the soil. Particularly, the high proportion of fine roots, e.g. Landsberger Mix, ensures good structural stability. The carrying capacity of the soil is improved, which the farmer benefits from predominantly through the maize yield (Video: Maize undersowing keeps the soil stable). Furthermore, the intensive root penetration of the soil leads to improved tilth when sowing the following crop.

  

Weed suppression and active groundwater protection are included for free

Organic farming trials confirm 20-80 % suppression of weeds by undersown crops. Additionally, the undersown crop removes excess nitrogen from the soil, thereby preventing it from being leached and making it available to the following crop. The undersown crop can take up the excess nitrogen, which is mineralised in the soil and converted to biomass, even if the maize has already reached its N-requirement. This helps to maintain the Water Framework Directive and lowers nitrate release into the ground water. For this reason, the undersown crops should be used especially in regions with soils at risk from leaching. Furthermore, it is possible to apply slurry or biogas substrates to the area with undersown crops after the maize harvest.

✔ Nutrient storage and protection against leaching
✔ Increased biological activity
✔ Adherence to the requirements of Cross Compliance
✔ (Humus) in short crop rotations
✔ Erosion protection
✔ Breaking up of short maize rotations
✔ Immediate soil coverage after harvest
✔ Possible use of the growth as substrate in spring

  

The following points must be observed for successful establishment of an undersown crop

Sowing:

There are currently various possible sowing procedures that can be used at different time points and with different mixtures. The aim of the individual mixtures is not to weaken the competitiveness of the maize at the respective sowing times. Thus, early undersown crop mixtures can already be applied shortly before or after the seed using a conventional drill or grass drill. The later mixtures can be applied with the aid of a pneumatic spreader or even with the slurry tanker. To do this, the grass seeds are introduced using a hose attached to the intake sack at the same time as the slurry is fed into the tanker.


Crop protection:

Ideally, the aim should be to split herbicide treatments for crop protection. By doing so, it is possible to perform a treatment with a soil active ingredient relatively early at the 2-3 leaf stage, and then a second treatment at the 5-6 leaf stage. Here, specific herbicides that work via the foliage can then be selected according to the type of weed. A number of the current substances are generally compatible with undersown crops and can be applied in a targeted manner to eliminate problem weeds such as sorghum. However, care should be taken that the undersown crop is sown at least two weeks after the first herbicide treatment so that the soil-applied herbicide does not cause severe damage to the young seedlings. You can request precise herbicide recommendations from the Chamber of Agriculture and your local DSV advisor.

 

Strategies for using crop protection:

A deciding factor for the success of the undersown crop is the adapted maize plant protection. Meanwhile there are a number of strategies available which make weed control possible. There are numerous herbicides (see table) that are compatible with undersown crops. However, a period of two weeks should be allowed after each spraying before sowing the grasses. A crop protection strategy is even possible against problem weeds like sorghum. At very high weed pressure, the undersown crop is however only possible with compromises in the herbicide effect. Your consultant can provide you with the current recommendations.

 
Herbicide combination Development of the undersown crop (0 = poor, 9 = very good)
Motivell forte + Peak + B 235 8
Calisto/Calaris (0,7) + B 235 / + Cato 7
Motivell forte + Peak + B 235 + Calaris (0,7) 6
Clio Star + Spectrum 6
Lodin / Mais Banvel WG / Harmony SX 6
Successor T 5
Source: LWK NRW, 2014

Undersown crops sown with the maize seeds require a different strategy. As they are already established, a certain weakening of the crop as a result of the herbicide is absolutely desirable. This thereby counteracts possible overgrowth and existing competition with the young maize. This strategy is possible with post-emergence herbicides: Laudis 2.0 l/ha + B 235 0.2 l/ha or Laudis 1.5 l/ha + Callisto 0.3 l/ha + B 235 0.2 l/ha (Source: LWK NRW, 2014).

  

Using the undersown crop

In addition to the use of undersown crops as green manure, they also offer an interesting source of feed for dairy farms and biogas plants. Under good conditions, a further cut can be made in the following spring after the undersown crop. In particular, the mixtures Humus-Plus-ENERGIE and Landsberger Mix form high biomass growth after the maize harvest, which can be harvested during the next spring. A proliferation in the grass seed is a further economic benefit of the undersown crop. But even if not used, 15 kg seed/ha provide plenty:
N-binding, ground greening, better navigability, improved humus balance and nutrient storage:
little effort – huge effect.
For an effective control of the corn borer, you should intensively shred the maize stubbles with mulchers after the harvest. Through this method, the tillering of the undersown grasses is stimulated and therefore the sward density increases.